ILM’s Hal Hickel on the symbiotic relationship between actor and animator

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At the recent Trojan Horse was a Unicorn event in Malta, I had the opportunity to sit down with ILM animation supervisor Hal Hickel for a THU TV interview.

We talked about the wealth of CG characters Hickel has overseen which began with live action and motion captured performances, including Davy Jones from the Pirates of the Caribbean films, the Orcs in Warcraft, and Tarkin and K-2SO in Rogue One (in which the original actor playing Tarkin, Peter Cushing, had in fact passed away).

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Hickel (centre) gears up for the THU TV interview. Photo by John Crowcroft.

With before and after images from those films, here’s some of Hickel’s main takes on how he and his team tend to tackle a character where actor and animator need to combine to craft the final result.

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When we were gearing up to do Pirates 2, we had a bunch of problems to solve. One of them was, we knew we needed to do body motion capture on location, which is something we at ILM had not done before. We needed to do it in jungles and on ships at sea and on sets, because we didn’t want to capture Bill Nighy’s performance separately on a motion capture stage. We wanted him there with the other actors. And then we had Davy Jones’ beard, which was a massive problem. It’s probably the single most difficult thing we had to do on the show. So, we decided not to tackle facial motion capture, but we opted instead to shoot Bill on-set in a motion capture suit – what we called iMocap are is our version of on-set motion capture.
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So, we’d filmed him and then the animators would just study the footage of face and keyframe animate Davey’s face. The thing is, it wasn’t just a mechanical process of saying, ‘Oh well this, you know, the mouth corner moved this much, so we’ll move our mouth corner that much.’ You really had to look at it and try and figure out what his intention was as an actor. Sometimes that’s a bit like tasting a stew and trying to figure out what they put in it. When an actor is doing something really subtle and there’s no subtext, really teasing that out and getting it right as you transform it, because that’s the other thing, is it wasn’t a one to one transfer. I mean, if Bill got angry and flared his nostrils, well, Davey doesn’t have a nose. So we had to find other ways to communicate certain things. So there was a translation that had to happen, but the intent was always to preserve exactly what Bill had done and communicate that faithfully.
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On Warcraft, it was definitely our impression that at least some of the actors who had done shows before where they were creating characters using motion capture, that they seemed to have the impression that that was all good and everything, but ultimately later on the visual effects crew was going to just bulldoze over that with animation and obliterate it and kind of do their own thing. So we did a test pretty quickly, just a few weeks into principal photography where we took some early phase capture of Robert Kazinsky and transferred it onto Orgrim.
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Even though our Orgrim asset wasn’t quite finished yet, we got a nice looking render with some nice lighting and we took that back to set on a laptop and just went around and showed it to the actors to say, ‘Look, what you’re doing on set is gold and we are going to treat it with kid gloves because the whole idea is to get that from a to b – you will see yourselves in these characters at the end of the process. And I think it was a great comfort to them. I think they felt that was great, like, ‘It actually matters what I do on camera.’
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With Rogue One and Tarkin, the actor having passed away introduces a very difficult thing that I don’t think we have all the answers for in terms of our technology and our processes. Because the very hardest thing from my point of view on it was, well, we had a terrific actor – Guy Henry. But Guy doesn’t use his face the way Peter Cushing uses his face. We all use our face differently. He doesn’t smile like him. He doesn’t form the phonemes the same. So while we could get a great performance from Guy and we could apply that to Tarkin and get a realistic looking movement, it lacked Tarkin’s likeness. We had high realism, but we had problems with likeness. It looked like Peter Cushing’s cousin or something. So we’d have to then adjust the motion to the face. The animation team would have to adjust it – if he did a smile, say, to get it to look like a Tarkin smile or a Peter Cushing smile.
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The problem was if you messed with it too much, of course it would start to feel like you’ve messed with it. It’s very easy to break capture. Even body capture people who’ve worked with it know that it’s sort of an interconnected web of motions. And if you just tweak the hips a little or move this a little, you can break stuff pretty quickly and it starts to look weird and Frankenstein’d together. So we had to find a line. We were trying to chase realism, but we’re also trying to chase likeness. And sometimes we had the sacrifice likeness a little bit to keep it feeling real and it would be a little less Cushing because we just didn’t want to push the motion around that much.
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We didn’t do facial capture with K-2SO on Rogue One, but Alan Tudyk’s performance, his comic timing, every little choice of how he moved his head and the delivery of his lines – we never messed with his timing. We had to fit the body capture to K-2SO and his posture and everything, but, again, the whole job there was to preserve what Alan had done, not to change what he’d done, especially his timing. We never messed with his time. It was perfect comedy gold.
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Actors are still at the heart of the process. They’re the foundation on which we build everything else. To me that’s kind of exciting. It’s funny because when motion capture was first coming onto the scene in visual effects, there were a lot of animators who were afraid of it because it took away some of their creative authorship over the work and I think they assumed that pretty soon just everything would be done with motion capture. But in fact it’s provided us with some really creative interesting tasks to build characters where we’re partnering with an actor.

Solo’s old-school hyperspace jump

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A new clip promoting Solo’s Blu-ray release is out, and it showcases the old-school techniques used to realise the hyperspace sequences on the Millennium Falcon. It includes a description of the technique by ILM’s Rob Bredow. Check out the clip below.

The CGI tidal wave in Snake Eyes that no one got to see

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Source: Behance page of Trevor Tuttle, a model maker at ILM on Snake Eyes.

This week is the 20th anniversary of Brian De Palma’s Snake Eyes, a film perhaps not thought of for any major VFX moments. But, in fact, the movie nearly did feature a key CG water sequence in what was still the early days of fluid sims.

This was for the original ending, which involved a hurricane and a tidal wave hitting the Atlantic City boardwalk and killing the film’s villain, played Gary Sinise. ILM was behind the wave simulation and several miniature elements, but the scene was cut after test screening audiences reacted adversely.

Brian De Palma spoke briefly about this original Snake Eyes ending in the 2015 Noah Baumbach and Jake Paltrow documentary, De Palma, which also showed a large portion of the deleted scene.

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Source: Behance page of Trevor Tuttle, a model maker at ILM on Snake Eyes.

“My concept was, when you’re dealing with such corruption, you need God to come down and blow it all away,” said De Palma in the documentary, referring to the murder conspiracy in Snake Eyes led by Gary Sinise’s character. “It’s the only way. It’s the only thing that works. That was the whole idea of the wave.”

“And nobody thought it worked,” De Palma added. “So we came up with something else, which I never particularly thought worked as well as the original idea.”

For the tidal wave, ILM – under visual effects supervisor Eric Brevig and associate visual effects supervisor Ed Hirsh – capitalised on earlier work the studio had pioneered in particles for Twister to conceptualise the breaking wave, it smashing into the pier and the immense amount of foam produced.

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Source: Behance page of Trevor Tuttle, a model maker at ILM on Snake Eyes.

Among the Snake Eyes artists at ILM was Habib Zargarpour, who would later go on to be an associate visual effects supervisor for The Perfect Storm where, of course, incredibly elaborate CG fluid sims would be further realised.

Zargarpour told vfxblog that the Snake Eyes tidal wave was modelled and animated to break in a controlling way, and then shaded with a fractal shader. A mix of Softimage and Wavefront’s Dynamation was used to craft the computer graphics. “I’d also learned about fractals from Jimmy Mitchell on The Mask. He had this fractal shader, and he did a little bit of water, and all of a sudden my eyes just popped. I went, ‘Oh, my God, what you can do with this thing?!’ And that became the foundation of a lot of stuff I would do afterwards, in terms of particles work.”

“We messed with the fractals to get a particular look,” added Zargarpour, “just to get the semblance of particles that still look a bit like clouds for the foam. Then we’d try to refine the particles that are left behind, add a little spline to the mid-particles on the bleeding edge. And it would start to get a little more shape out of them.”

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Source: Behance page of Trevor Tuttle, a model maker at ILM on Snake Eyes.

Zargarpour says one thing he particularly remembers discovering on the Snake Eyes tidal wave project was how to make particles not look like dirt and dust, but instead like water. “It was all in how you light it,” he noted. “The key was in pRender, the particle-rendering we had for Twister, where you could cheat the size of the particle from the light POV, from each light. So, the trick for making them look like water was to take the keylight, or backlight, and make the particles look really small from that light’s point of view. That made the light go through and scatter. Otherwise, it’s going to look like chunky ice cream.”

“But if you wanted a rim light from that light’s point of view,” continues Zargarpour, “you could make the particles like giant ice cream cones, and huge tennis balls, and then that would just hit this hard edge and give you a rim.”

Several splash elements were filmed in miniature for the tidal wave sequence, with some ultimately finding their way into parts of the ending that was preserved. However, the pier and theme park were 3D models. “We did this technique, which was basically to turn the model into a soft body,” explained Zargarpour. “When you make a soft body, you also make springs out of the polygon edges, and then how tight those edges are determines how much things stretch or not. So we usually made it pretty tight springs, but then the interconnectivity gets overwhelmed by gravity and turbulence.”

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Source: Behance page of Trevor Tuttle, a model maker at ILM on Snake Eyes.

Although they were not seen, Snake Eyes’ tidal wave shots are part of a long line of ILM’s digital effects sequences involving tsunamis, storms and water sims. Interestingly, a different team worked on the CG water simulations for Deep Impact, released a few months earlier than Snake Eyes (see this vfxblog story with former ILMer Chris Horvath about a particular shot in Deep Impact).

And a final observation: fans of The Abyss might also be familiar with an original tidal wave sequence – produced by ILM with real wave and miniature footage that was both digitally and optically manipulated – that was cut from the 1989 film, but brought back for James Cameron’s special edition version.

Finding ‘Indo’ – how ILM made Fallen Kingdom’s Indoraptor a different dinosaur

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It’s basically psychotic. It doesn’t have a mother. It has no sense of right or wrong and it’s a bit unhinged. – Alex Wuttke, visual effects supervisor, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

The genetically engineered Indoraptor is a new kind of dinosaur introduced in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. For the film’s effects teams, it was the opportunity to explore different creature behaviours, motion and emotion, particularly because ‘Indo’ was, as a result of his creation, somewhat of a neurotic dinosaur.

For on set, Neal Scanlan’s team built and puppeteered practical Indo pieces, while in CG, ILM worked on introducing twitches to the mentally unstable dino, which also had to have the ability to go from a biped to a quadruped. vfxblog sat down with ILM visual effects supervisors David Vickery and Alex Wuttke and animation supervisor Jance Rubinchik to talk through how they ‘found’ their Indoraptor character. Continue reading Finding ‘Indo’ – how ILM made Fallen Kingdom’s Indoraptor a different dinosaur

Fallen Kingdom: the film before the film

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Before things start ramping up in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, audiences get a taste of what’s to come thanks to a dramatic prologue sequence. Here, mercenaries visit Isla Nublar and quickly encounter the infamous T. Rex in the main street, and then later a leaping Mosasaurus. The sequence includes both a submarine arrival and an attempted helicopter exit that does not go so smoothly.

Many of the scenes involved fully digital creatures, but several helicopter shots featured either a real aircraft or a ‘buck’ chopper attached to a crane. Visual effects studio Important Looking Pirates was brought on as a partner to ILM for the prologue, its work overseen by visual effects supervisors David Vickery and Alex Wuttke. vfxblog visited Wuttke at ILM in London where he outlined how the sequence was pulled off. Continue reading Fallen Kingdom: the film before the film

The saddest moment in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom was also one of the most beautiful

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The sight of a brachiosaurus being enveloped in an ash cloud after the volcanic eruption of Isla Nublar – as several characters and other dinosaurs leave the island by boat – was a powerful moment in J.A. Bayona’s Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. vfxblog asked ILM animation supervisor Jance Rubinchik about the approach to that touching scene, which turned out to be a direct reference back to the original Jurassic Park.

Jance Rubinchik: Wherever we could pay any sort of homage to Jurassic Park, we did. It was always fun when we got the opportunity to. In that shot, you see brachi labouring down the pier towards the end as the ash cloud is racing towards her. She rears up and her head comes up just as the smoke is enveloping her. We lose her and we see her shadow through the smoke.

We basically lifted that moment from the original Jurassic Park where the first dinosaur we see is the brachiosaur riding up on her back two legs and plucking the leaves from the tops of the branches. That’s the first time that as an audience we get to see a dinosaur. So I thought it was great that the last time we see a dinosaur on Isla Nublar is taking it full circle back to brachi and we see her doing a very similar action – coming up back on those back hind legs.

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Original plate.
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Final shot.

When we had originally animated it, we were blocking it in and we had those ash clouds more behind the brachi. You’ve got that full moment of her coming up onto two legs and then the ash cloud sort of moved past her. So you kind of got that moment a lot more. J.A. wanted to be less obvious, he wanted more of that moment of the shadow projected through the smoke. So the effects guys just kept adding more smoke and more smoke and more smoke, until it got fairly covered up in the end.

Which was – it’s always a little disappointing on the animators side, when you do all this work and then it’s a little bit lost or obscure. But in the end, it’s all about what makes the story work and what has the most visual impact. I think J.A. was absolutely right in that call. It just really tugs at the heartstrings even more so.

Stay tuned to vfxblog.com for more Fallen Kingdom articles during #jurassicweek Mark II.

A lion and a Mosasaurus: how those fun end moments of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom came to be

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The final scenes of Fallen Kingdom, in which several dinos have escaped captivity and are now out in the ‘human world’, hint at exciting times to come. Two moments in particular stand-out: the sight of a giant Mosasaurus coming through a wave amidst a group of surfers, and a T. Rex roaring at a lion in a zoo.

These scenes – which actually featured in trailers and TV spots for the film – required extensive visual effects work. Fallen Kingdom VFX supervisor Alex Wuttke from Industrial Light & Magic tells vfxblog how the memorable moments happened. Continue reading A lion and a Mosasaurus: how those fun end moments of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom came to be

The best of both Jurassic worlds: practical and digital

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“We gave Neal a 200 million polygon file from the T. rex at one-to-one scale. He started printing it but two days later he rang me panicking, going, ‘David, David. I can see poly faces! I can see the polygons in my 3D print! We need more resolution!’” – David Vickery, visual effects supervisor, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

At one point in J.A. Bayona’s Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, the characters Claire (Bryce Dallas Howard) and Owen (Chris Pratt) find themselves in a shipping container with a groggy T. rex…which then wakes up.

It’s a thrilling scene, thanks to the close-quarters action, and one that involved a close collaboration between Neal Scanlan’s practical creatures and ILM’s digital visual effects, overseen by supervisors David Vickery and Alex Wuttke. That collaboration included the provision of digital models early on from ILM to Scanlan so that the practical and CG dinos would match as tightly as possible.

vfxblog sat down with David Vickery at ILM in London where the VFX supe outlined how the T. rex container sequence was handled. Continue reading The best of both Jurassic worlds: practical and digital

All aboard Solo’s conveyex train heist

I recently got to chat to Solo visual effects supervisor Rob Bredow about the film – you should be able to read various articles around the place, and I’ll post links to them at vfxblog.com. One of the standout sequences in the film is the conveyex train heist on Vandor, and Bredow shared his scouting, shooting, and miniature explosions process for bringing that incredible sequence to life. Check it out at the link below:

https://www.vfxblog.com/solo

‘You can’t wipe them off, they’re holograms.’ Well………

How closely were you watching that game of Dejarik in Solo? Now’s the time to take another look…

Pretty much every Star Wars film has fun Easter Eggs. But Ron Howard’s Solo has one of the coolest ‘inside visual effects’ hidden gem played out so far. And it’s to do with the game of Dejarik – or Holochess – that Chewbacca and Tobias Beckett play on the Millennium Falcon (which is at this stage owned by Lando Calrissian).

Holochess should be something that most avid Star Wars-watchers are familiar with. It showed up first in A New Hope, where Phil Tippett and Jon Berg animated stop-motion creatures that were composited as holograms into a scene of Chewbacca playing the game against R2-D2. A brief refrain of the game appeared in The Force Awakens, too. Then, in Solo, Chewbacca loses at the hands of Beckett.

But…something pretty cool happens during that most recent incarnation in Solo.

Let’s start with the actual clip from the film.

Did you see it? Watch it again and look what happens when Chewie gets frustrated and slams and wipes the board with his arm.

That’s right, two of the creatures actually ‘pop off’ as holograms, presumably because Chewie uses his Wookie strength to almost break the Holochess table.

Both the ‘new’ chess pieces are there (look above the second light from the left on the table).
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After the table sparks, the pieces have now ‘popped’ off. You can see the gap left on the board.

‘Big deal,’ I hear you say. Well, it’s actually a completely intentional thing. That’s because those two creatures that pop off the board were actually two creatures originally intended to be in the game during A New Hope.

Wait, what?

Well, here’s what happened, as described by Solo visual effects supervisor Rob Bredow at a recent Visual Effects Society screening and Q&A of the film.

The story was, Tippett had originally built 10 more characters, two more than he needed. Apparently George Lucas came out when they were lining up the shots for A New Hope 41 years ago and he said, ‘Oh it’s too crowded.’ So Tippett took a couple of them off the board and they were never seen again.

But…those pieces were not actually lost forever. Relatively recently, Tippett did find the original designs to the two creatures. What’s more, it turned out he’d given the unused stop-motion models to ILM visual effects supervisor Dennis Muren after A New Hope wrapped. And Muren had kept them, all these years.

Just to be sure, watch this clip from A New Hope, which shows just eight characters on the table.

The discovery of the two missing creatures seems to have happened as Tippett was simultaneously cleaning out his studio and preparing rewards for a Kickstarter for his short film project MAD GOD. His studio accessed the original models, scanned them via photogrammetry and moulded new versions for the rewards.

In fact, that Kickstarter project was all documented last year in a video for Tested, which showed how the new moulds were made and the figures crafted for awards.

Jump to production on Solo, and Tippett Studio – which had already re-made the original eight Holochess characters for a brief scene of Finn activating the table in The Force Awakens – was called upon to make this new Dejarik game between Chewie and Beckett.

That spurned the idea, as a story point, that perhaps there were originally ten creatures to the game on Lando’s Falcon, until Chewie’s meltdown.

Bredow related further on this at the VES event:

Tippett said, ‘Wouldn’t it be fun if the pristine Lando Falcon has two extra characters on the board?’ And then we realised when Chewie does this [mimes hand thumping], two of the buttons popped off the table. If you watch carefully…two extra characters for two shots. Then they disappear, never to be seen again.

Which just goes to show, it really is unwise to upset a Wookie.

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A pic of one of the original missing chess pieces (from the Tested video).
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A pic of the other missing chess piece (from the Tested video).
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Tippett with the collection of chess pieces during A New Hope (one of the missing pieces is identified). This pic from the Kickstarter for MAD GOD Part 3.

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Jurassic Week: the Dinosaur Input Device

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Next up in vfxblog’s Jurassic Week is a brand new oral history on the making of the Dinosaur Input Device. It was this dinosaur-shaped stop-motion armature fitted with special encoders that kept Tippett Studio in the game during the making of Jurassic Park, after its original stop-motion dinos were scrapped in favour of ILM’s CG. This oral history includes a ton of rarely seen behind the scenes images.

https://vfxblog.com/dinosaurinputdevice

Jurassic Week: the history of Viewpaint

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This week vfxblog is celebrating Jurassic Week, a whole week of Jurassic Park-inspired articles to celebrate the imminent 25th anniversary of Jurassic Park and the upcoming release of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. First up, a look at ILM’s secret weapon in bringing its photoreal dinosaurs to life: Viewpaint, a 3D texturing tool that let artists paint directly on CG dinosaur models. Start reading at the special dedicated page below.

https://vfxblog.com/viewpaint/

Willow is 30!

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It’s very nearly the 30th anniversary of Ron Howard’s Willow, a huge effects film full of practical fx, miniatures, optical composites, matte paintings…and digital morphing. This was ILM’s big breakthrough into 2D image manipulation. I recently wrote about for VFX Voice magazine, and you can check out that article here.

Remembering this killer ILM shot from Deep Impact, now 20 years old

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20 years ago, the first of 1998’s asteroid films, Deep Impact, was released. In some ways it used visual effects rather sparingly to showcase the result of a partial meteor hit on the Earth. Massive waves hitting New York were a feature of the film, and these were realised as CG water sims by ILM. One shot in particular stayed in my memory – an overhead view of the waves crashing between buildings. Christopher Horvath was behind the sims for that shot, and he spoke to vfxblog about how it was made two decades ago. Read the interview here: http://vfxblog.com/deepimpact/